Pressure Pain Threshold, Neck Disability Index, Oral Opening and Levels of Salivary Biomarkers in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders. A Cross-Sectional Study

  • Pedro Pérez Cátedra Physiotherapist, Professor, Fisiosur I+D, Granada, Spain
  • Cleofás Rodriguez Blanco PT, PhD, Professor, Physiotherapy Department, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • María Dolores Cortés Vega PT, PhD, Physiotherapist, Professor, Physiotherapy Department, University of Seville, Seville. Spain.
  • Alberto Marcos Heredia Rizo PT, PhD, Physiotherapist, Physiotherapy Department, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • Francisco Javier Serrano Sánchez PT, Physiotherapist, Proffesor, Physiotherapy Department, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • Gabriel Castillo Dalí PhD, Biologist, Oral Surgery Department, Dental School, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • Daniel Torres Lagares DDS, PhD, Professor, Oral Surgery Department, Dental School, University of Seville, Seville, Spain

Abstract

Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders are a clinical alteration that affects 5-13% of the world population. They are related to musculoskeletal structures and mismatches of the Neurovegetative Nervous System, being therefore of relevance in the therapeutic approach.

 

Objectives: To describe the postural and neuromuscular alterations observed in various parts of the body, and other clinical and demographic characteristics in a population of patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction syndrome.

 

Material and Methods: An observational and descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 47 patients who presented some type of TMJ dysfunction syndrome., in one or both joints and who were diagnosed in the maxillofacial surgery unit of “Virgen del Rocío” University Hospital (Seville, Spain).

 

Results: Pressure pain threshold (PPT)  (measured in N/cm2 in the masticatory muscles) was  9.95 of average, in the right masseter, and 9.97 in the left. In the temporal muscle, an average of 12.13 was obtained in the right muscle and 12.02 in the left one. The mean of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) was 14.45 (28.91%), the average mouth opening was 40, 38 mm, the mean salivary amylase was 24.28 IU / ml, the mean IgA was 18721.34 nMol / ml.

 

 Conclusions: Patients in the present study have values ​​of PPT in the masticatory muscles inferior to patients without pathology in the TMJ. They have a mild-moderate neck disability. However, they have normal maximum mouth opening values, inappropriate for patients with TMJ pathology and levels of alpha amylase (α-amylase) slightly below the population and secretory IgA levels within the range of normality of the population.

Key Words: Temporomandibular Joint Disorders; Pain Threshold; Trigger Points, Salivary Biomarkers. 

Published
2019-03-01